Salinee Jantrapirom et al.
In the last decade, an intriguing new paradigm of regulation has emerged in which some transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides and no coding potential, long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs), exhibit the capability to control posttranslational modifications of nonhistone proteins in both invertebrates and vertebrates. The extent of such a regulation is still largely unknown. We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate the potential impact of lncRNAdependent methylation of nonhistone proteins. Collectively, these lncRNAs primarily act as scaffolds upon which methyltransferases (MTases) and targets are brought in proximity. In this manner, the N-MTase activity of EZH2, protein arginine-MTase 1/4/5, and SMYD2 is exploited to modulate the stability or the compartmentalization of several nonhistone proteins with roles in cell signaling, gene expression, and RNA processing. Moreover, these lncRNAs can indirectly affect the methylation of nonhistone proteins by transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation of MTases. Strikingly, the lncRNAs/MTases/ nonhistone proteins networking seem to be relevant to carcinogenesis and neurological disorders.